All human societies exhibit beliefs and practices that could be called spiritual. However, these beliefs and practices vary widely. There are strong patterns in this variability that seem tied to society’s basic economic underpinnings—whether people derive their sustenance from hunting and gathering, horticulture, or agriculture. Among agricultural societies variability seems tied to phases of urban development (“civilization.)” Today, have we reached a new and stable stage in societal evolution, or are we on the cusp of a shift as profound as any in human history? In this presentation of the 131st Summer National Convention of the Theosophical Society in America, Richard Heinberg explores the role of spirituality in that shift, and what changes in spirituality are likely to accompany the transition?